Broekhuizen, F., Emergency Contraception, Efficacy and Public Health Impact, Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology. August 2009, 21(4) 309-312.
This report discusses potential influence from the availability of emergency contraception to the public.
Halpern, V., and Raymond, E.G., Repeated use of Pre- and Postcoital Hormonal Contraception for Prevention of Pregnancy. Cochrane Database System Review. January 2010
Through databases, research was conducted to find risks and effectiveness with repeated use of postcoital hormonal contraception.
Henshaw SK, et al., Contraceptive Use Among US Women Having Abortions in 2000-2001, Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, December 2002.
Using a nationally representative sample of over 10,600 women receiving abortion services in 2000 through 2001, researchers examined women’s contraceptive utilization patterns. Researchers focused on reasons for not using contraception and the impact of contraceptive pills on abortion rates. Based on this data, researchers estimate that as many as 51,000 abortions were avoided by using EC in 2000.
Mansour, D., Inki, P., and Gemzell-Danielsson, K., Efficacy of Contraceptive Methods: A Review of the Literature. European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care, February 2010
Contraceptive failure rates for various methods based on review of literature. Research from January 1990 to February 2008.
Polis CB, Schaffer K, et al., Advance Provision of Emergency Contraception of Pregnancy Prevention: A Meta-Analysis, Obstetrics and Gynecology, December 2007.
This meta-analysis was performed to summarize randomized controlled trials evaluating advance provision of emergency contraception to explore effects on pregnancy rates, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual and contraceptive behaviors.
Raymond EG, Trussell J and Polis CB, Population Effect of Increased Access to Emergency Contraceptive Pills: A Systematic Review, Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2007.
This article is a systematic review of data on the effects of increased access to EC pills on pregnancy rates and the use of pills.
Weisberg, E. and Frazer, I., Rights to Emergency Contraception, International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. August 2009 106(2):160-163.
This article discusses the issues surrounding women’s rights and the impact of accessibility to emergency contraception.
Efficacy and Mode Action
Pruitt, SL, Mullen PD, Contraception or Abortion? Inaccurate Descriptions of Emergency Contraception in Newspaper Articles, 1992-2002, Contraception, January 2005.
Using content analyses from a sample of other 1000 articles published in newspapers discussing EC and abortion, this study calculates the frequency of misinformation or mix-up between the terms emergency contraception and abortion.
Rodrigues I, et al., Effectiveness of Emergency Contraceptive Pills Between 72 and 120 Hours After Unprotected Sexual Intercourse, American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, March 2001.
This article used observational data to examine the effectiveness of administering EC to women at different times after unprotected intercourse. Its key findings make suggestions about how long EC should be administered after intercourse.
Teal, S., et al. Efficacy, Acceptability and Safety of Medication Abortion in Low-Income, Urban Latina Women. Contraception. November 2009. 80(5) 479-483
Trussell J, et al., Updated Estimates of the Effectiveness of the Yuzpe Regimen of Emergency Contraception, Contraception, 1999.
Based on a literature review of eight studies, the authors examined the effectiveness of the Yuzpe method of emergency contraception (taking multiple standard birth control pills at once).
Von Hertzen H, et al., Low Dose Mifepristone and Two Regimens of Levonorgestrel for Emergency Contraception: A WHO Multicentre Randomised Trial, The Lancet, December 2002.
Based on a clinical trial of over 4,000 women in clinics from over 10 countries, this study compared the efficacy and side effects of three regimens for emergency contraception.
Whittaker, P., Armstrong, K., and Adams, J., Implementing an Advance Emergency Contraception Policy: What Happens in the Real World?, Perspectives on Sexual Reproductive Health, September 2008.
This piece discusses the factors influencing the implementation of emergency contraception to public health policy.
Provider Knowledge and Practices
Goyal, M, et. al. Exploring Emergency Contraception Knowledge, Prescription Practices and Barriers to Prescription for Adolescents in the Emergency Department. Pediatrics. 123:3 (765-770). March 2009.
Bennett W, et al., Pharmacists’ Knowledge and the Difficulty of Obtaining Emergency Contraception, Contraception, 2003.
Based on a cross-sectional study of pharmacists, researchers explored pharmacists’ attitudes and knowledge of EC, while also calling pharmacies to see if an EC prescription could be filled on the same day. Using these findings, the researchers make policy suggestions to increase access to EC at the pharmacy.
Kavanaugh, M. and Schwarz, E. Counseling About and Use of Emergency Contraception in the United States, Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, June 2008. 40(2): 81-86.
Based on data collected from 7,643 women, this study examines the impact of counseling to women need information or wanting to receive emergency contraception.
Kelly PJ, Sable MR, et al., Physicians' Intention to Educate About Emergency Contraception, Family Medicine, January 2008.
This article examines the intention of academic primary care physicians to educate women about EC and whether differences in their intentions vary with patient situation, knowledge and attitudes about EC, gender or specialty.
National Women’s Law Center, Pharmacy Refusals 101, June 2005.
This three-page brief provides background on EC access at pharmacies. It cites specific state-by-state cases in which pharmacists refused to fill EC prescriptions, while also providing information on state action and public opinion about pharmacy refusals.
National Conference of State Legislatures, Pharmacist Conscience Clauses: Laws and Legislation, updated Nov 2007.
This brief summarizes state-by-state laws about pharmacies’ right to refuse to fill EC prescriptions.
Ragland, D., West, D. Pharmacy Students’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors Regarding Emergency Contraception. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. April 2009. 73(2) 26
Raine T, et al., Direct Access to Emergency Contraception through Pharmacies and Effect on Unintended Pregnancy and STIs, JAMA, 2005.
Based on a trial study of over 2,000 women ages 15-24, this study compares the rates of EC utilization among women with pharmacy access to EC, with advance prescription of EC, or those with only clinical access to EC. The authors’ findings suggest that women in the advance provision group were nearly twice as likely to use EC as those women with only EC access through clinics. The authors discuss the policy implications for these findings and possible public health impacts.
Van Riper KK, Hellerstedt WL, Emergency Contraceptive Pills: Dispensing Practices, Knowledge, and Attitudes of South Dakota Pharmacists, Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, March 2005.
Based on a mail survey of 501 registered pharmacists in South Dakota, researchers studied pharmacists’ knowledge, attitudes, and dispensing practices with EC.
American Public Health Association, Re: Failure to include information about emergency contraception in National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations, January 2005.
This position letter was sent to the U.S. Department of Justice in response to the release of the National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examination. With the signatures of dozens of organizations, the letter criticizes the National Protocol’s omission of EC administration as part of the protocol for treatment after sexual assault.
National Women’s Law Center, Providing Emergency Contraception to Sexual Assault Survivors, August 2009.
This document provides current laws in states with procedures on the distribution of emergency contraceptive pills and mentions a few recommendations of creating successful state laws.
Patel, S., Miller, M., Dowd, M., Patient characteristics and provider practice patterns for emergency contraception in a pediatric emergency department. Pediatric Emergency Care. January 2010
This study examines types of patients receiving oral emergency contraceptive pills at emergency departments and their overall experience, coverage, and reasons for its use.
Patel A, et al., Under-Use of Emergency Contraception of Victims of Sexual Assault, International Journal of Fertility and Women’s Health, Nov/Dec 2004.
Using a phone survey of 125 Pennsylvania hospital emergency departments, this study questioned emergency departments, about their protocol for providing or not providing EC in cases of sexual assault. The study also compares the sexual assault protocol between Catholic and non-Catholic hospitals.
Polis C, Schaffer K, Harrison T, Accessibility of Emergency Contraception in California’s Catholic Hospitals, Women's Health Issues, July 2005.
Based on calls to 45 Catholic Hospitals in California in 2003, this study surveyed hospitals about whether they dispensed EC and under what circumstances it was dispensed, including sexual assault. For hospitals only providing referrals, callers followed up with referrals to calculate success rate of the referrals.
U.S. Department of Justice, National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examination, September 2004.
This 141-page guide gives criminal justice providers and health care providers guidelines about how to deal with patients after sexual assault. It focuses on providing immediate care while also collecting evidence for prosecuting perpetrators of sexual assault.
Youth and Adolescent Policy
Ahern R, Frattarelli L, Delto A, Kaneshiro B, Knowledge and Awareness of Emergency Contraception in Adolescents, Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, May 2010.
This study assessed knowledge of emergency contraception and other reproductive health topics among adolescent females ages 14 to 19.
Aiken AM, et al., Changes in Young Women’s Awareness, Attitudes, and Perceived Barriers to Using Emergency Contraception, Journal of Pediatric Adolescent Gynecology, February 2005.
This study used surveys of 139 young women from an adolescent health clinic, as a follow up to a survey conducted with a different sample of women at the same clinic in 1996. The study interviewed the women about their experiences, attitudes, and opinions about contraception including EC, asking the women both before and after viewing an educational video and lecture about EC. Authors report on how women’s attitudes and knowledge have changed since the survey was first administered in 1996.
Harper C, Cheong M, Rocca C, Darney P, Raine T, The Effect of Increased Access to Emergency Contraception Among Young Adolescents, Obstetrics & Gynecology, 2005.
Based on previously published data from over 2,000 adolescents, this study analyzes data on adolescents’ use of EC and the impact of increased access to EC among adolescents.
Johnson R, Nshom M, Nye A, Cohall A, There’s Always Plan B® : Adolescent Knowledge, Attitudes and Intention to Use Emergency Contraception, Contraception, February 2010.
This qualitative study examines knowledge of and access to EC among adolescents ages 15-21 .
Kavanaugh, M, Saladino, R, Gold, M., Emergency Contraception Services for Adolescents: A National Survey of Children’s Hospital Emergency Department Directors. Journal of Pediatrics and Adolescent Gynecology., April 2009 22(2): 111-119.
This study assessed through interviews whether directors of children’s hospital emergency rooms were prescribing EC according to recommended standard of care. The results concluded that the recommended standard of care is not being met.
Krishnamurti, T., Eggers, S., Fishchhoff, B. The Impact of Over-the-Counter Availability of Plan B® on Teens’ Contraceptive Decision Making. Social Science & Medicine, August 2008 67(4): 618-27.
This piece discusses possible behaviors in teen with the availability of over-the-counter EC pills.
Raine T, Harper C, Leon K, Darney P, Emergency Contraception: Advance Provision in a Young, High Risk Clinic Population, Obstetrics & Gynecology, 2000.
Based on a controlled trial study of women ages 16-24, this study examines the utilization of EC, education about EC, regular contraceptive use, and the effect of providing advance EC prescriptions on sexual practices.
Barot S, Past Due: Emergency Contraception in U.S. Reproductive Health Programs Overseas, Guttmacher Institute Policy Review, Spring 2010.
This review explores policy and service delivery issues around emergency contraception provision by the U.S. Aid for International Development (USAID) abroad.
Boonstra H, Improving Access: The French Experience, The Guttmacher Report, 2002.
This briefly summarizes abortion and contraception trends in France before and after key EC policy milestones, including when EC became available over-the-counter to women and EC became available to adolescents.
Ghosh, B., et al. Ectopic Pregnancy Following Levonorgestrel Emergency Contraception: A Case Report. Contraception. February 2009. 79(2):155-157
This report discusses the use of levonorgestrel as emergency contraception and its use in ectopic pregnancy. In addition, it takes a look at the possible impact of it’s availability without a prescription in many countries.
Marston C, Meltzer H, Majeed A, Impact on Contraceptive Practice of Making Emergency Hormonal Contraception Available Over-the-Counter in Great Britain: Repeated Cross Sectional Surveys, British Medical Journal, July 2005.
Based on a survey of British women ages 16-49, this study examines patterns in contraceptive practice for women after changes in public policy made emergency contraception available over the counter.
Mittal, S. Interventions for Emergency Contraception: RHL commentary (last revised: November 2008). The WHO Reproductive Health Library; Geneva: World Health Organization.
This study, which was conducted in China, was done to determine the most effective method of preventing pregnancy following unprotected intercourse.
Parker C, Adolescents and Emergency Contraceptive Pills in Developing Countries, Family Health International, May 2005.
This publication explores various reasons as to why provision of emergency contraception is important to the reproductive health and well-being of adolescents in developing countries. It also provides a case study of EC marketing in Venezuela.
Trussell J, Wynn L, Dedicated Emergency Contraceptive Pills Worldwide, October 2005.
This table lists pills packaged for emergency contraception around the world. It includes lists of countries in which each pill is available, and indicates whether these pills are available over-the-counter.
WHO Task Force on Postovulatory Methods of Fertility Regulation, Randomised Controlled Trial of Levonorgestrel Versus the Yuzpe Regimen of Combined Oral Contraceptives for Emergency Contraception, The Lancet, August 1998.
This trial examined patterns and outcomes from almost 2,000 women who requested emergency contraception after unprotected intercourse or contraceptive failure. The authors find that side effects were significantly less frequent with the Plan B regimen in comparison to the Yuzpe regiment (multiple standard birth control pills taken at once). Likelihood of contraception increased as the interval between EC administration and intercourse increased.
Ella (Ulipristal Acetate)
Furedi A, New Emergency Contraceptive Method EllaOne®—is it worth the price?, Reproductive Health Matters, November 2009.
This article raises the question of whether or not the sale of EllaOne® in the U.K., despite its impressive efficacy, safety, and longer shelf life, can compete in a market that provides the less costly levonorgestrel method.
Glasier A, et al., Ulipristal acetate versus levonorgestrel for emergency contraception: a randomized non-inferiority trial and meta-analysis, The Lancet, January 2010.
These study findings show that ulipristal acetate is a significantly more effective emergency contraceptive method compared to standard levonorgestrel EC.
Mansour D, EllaOne®: A Second-Generation Emergency Contraceptive?, Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care, 2009.
This commentary explains what the European brand of ulipristal acetate, EllaOne®, is and its mode of action and effectiveness. It also clarifies who can take this EC and marketing/labeling issues.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration, FDA Briefing Information, Ulipristal Acetate, for the June 17, 2010 Meeting of the Advisory Committee for Reproductive Health Drugs, June 2010.
This document, intended to brief the FDA panel that would vote whether to approve the sale of ulipristal acetate in the U.S., details the study findings of various clinical trials and other pertinent information that inform of the efficacy and safety of ulipristal acetate.